All posts by Ruturaj Vartak

Creating tables

The first and foremost need is to have access logs, Since in this tutorial, we’ll be logging in MySQL, we need to have a table in which we can maintain a good access log.

For an access log here are the following necessary data fields

  • Accessed URL
  • Referer to the Acessed URL
  • User Agent accessing the document
  • IP of the Client
  • Datetime stamp

Access Log Table
Here is the table view_log

CREATE TABLE `view_log` (
 `view_id` int(11) NOT NULL auto_increment,
 `view_url` varchar(255) NOT NULL default '',
 `view_ref` varchar(255) NOT NULL default '',
 `view_ua` varchar(255) NOT NULL default '',
 `view_ip` varchar(20) NOT NULL default '',
 `view_datetime` datetime NOT NULL default '0000-00-00 00:00:00',
 PRIMARY KEY  (`view_id`)
) TYPE=MyISAM COMMENT='Saves the log of viewing log'

Search Engines Table
Now we need to have a list of the Search Engines that link us to the site. I’ve taken the most popular of them, and the ones that I know..
The most important field that we have in this table is the se_regex, this field stores the regular expression, that will parse out the keyword from the referered URL.

CREATE TABLE `search_engines` (
`se_id` int(11) NOT NULL auto_increment,
`se_name` varchar(255) NOT NULL default '',
`se_regex` varchar(255) NOT NULL default '',
PRIMARY KEY (`se_id`)
) TYPE=MyISAM COMMENT='Search Engines'

Now that we have a table structure in place lets populate some data into it.
I’ll explain the regular expressions for the engines in the next page.

INSERT INTO search_engines VALUES (1,'Google','/.*google.*?q=([^&]*).*/i');
INSERT INTO search_engines VALUES (2,'Yahoo','/.*yahoo.*?p=([^&]*).*/i');
INSERT INTO search_engines VALUES (3,'MSN','/.*msn.*?q=([^&]*).*/i');
INSERT INTO search_engines VALUES (4,'Netscape','/.*netscape.*?search=([^&]*).*/i');
INSERT INTO search_engines VALUES (5,'AOL','/.*aol.*?query=([^&]*).*/i');
INSERT INTO search_engines VALUES (6,'Alexa','/.*alexa.*?q=([^&]*).*/i');
INSERT INTO search_engines VALUES (7,'AltaVista','/.*altavista.*?q=([^&]*).*/i');
INSERT INTO search_engines VALUES (8,'AllTheWeb','/.*alltheweb.*?q=([^&]*).*/i');
INSERT INTO search_engines VALUES (9,'A9','/.*a9.*?search=([^&]*).*/i');
INSERT INTO search_engines VALUES (10,'DMoz','/.*dmoz.*?search=([^&]*).*/i');
INSERT INTO search_engines VALUES (11,'Lycos','/.*lycos.*?query=([^&]*).*/i');
INSERT INTO search_engines VALUES (12,'Terra Lycos','/.*terra.*?query=([^&]*).*/i');
INSERT INTO search_engines VALUES (13,'Alexa','/.*alexa.*?q=([^&]*).*/i');
INSERT INTO search_engines VALUES (14,'Rediff','/.*rediff.*?MT=([^&]*).*/i');

Keyword Statistics Table
This table will hold keyword and its hit counter.

CREATE TABLE `keyword_search_stats` (
`keyword_search_stats` int(11) NOT NULL auto_increment,
`keyword` varchar(255) default NULL,
`keyword_count` int(11) default NULL,
`update` datetime NOT NULL default '0000-00-00 00:00:00',
PRIMARY KEY (`keyword_search_stats`),
KEY `keyword_index` (`keyword`)

I’m creating an index on the keyword column, so that it is easier to search the keywords

Search Engine Statistics Table
This table will hold Search Engine and no. of referals from it.

CREATE TABLE `search_engine_stats` (
`search_engine_stats_id` int(11) NOT NULL auto_increment,
`search_engine` varchar(255) default NULL,
`search_engine_count` int(11) NOT NULL default '0',
`update` datetime default NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (`search_engine_stats_id`)

Search Engine Referer Keyword Tracking

You really want to analyze your source of traffic. Most of the times you install, use some of the free softwares available on the net. But If you are a programmer… You will want to know how to track these visitors, Search engine keywords, etc…

Here I’ll be showing the programmer’s point of view to develop a solution.

To track most of the important aspects of search engine referals, are the HTTP_REFERER and the HTTP_USER_AGENT variables.

I’m assuming you have Apache as the web server and PHP as the scripting language with my favourite MySQL as the database server.

There are two ways that you can track the above content

  • Apache access logs
  • Database logging

Keyword Hits
So the final result would be like

Keyword Hit Count
keyowrd 1 100
keyowrd 2 70
keyowrd 3 60

Search Engine Referers
Search Engine hit counts

Search Engine Ref. Count
Google 100
Yahoo 70
MSN 60

In this tutorial, I’ll be focussing on the MySQL logging. So lets begin with it.

Scales and Chords in Scale of C

This entry is part 3 of 41 in the series Guitar

We’ll now play the scale of C, The major scale of C has no sharp or flat notes, it has plain notes. The notes in scale of C are C, D, E, F, G, A, B

In any scale the 3rd and 4th note are separate by half note and same goes with the 7th and 8th note.
So when incrementing the frets, whiel playing the 4th note, just increment the 3rd note by 1 fret.

Let us play them in this fashion.




All the notes have to be played in a down strokes. Play very slowly and at regular interval.

Let every note ring

Practice this 20-30 times till you can play the whole thing easily.

Alternate Picking
Now, that you can play the Note of C easily, let us start with a new way of picking strings… “Alternate Picking”
For alternate picking, every note you play, you pick in the opposite way to which you played the initial note.
ie. Start the C note by playing a down-stroke, the next note is the open String d, this you pick in up-stroke, then the E note you pick it in down-stroke, and so on…

You must grab this picking … So to start with… you do it very slowly, see every note that you pick, and register that note in your mind, and while playing that note try to find out the next note position and the type of stroke that has to be played.

Chords in Scale of C

[Tonic / Root / Key Note]    [Sub-Dominant]    [Dominant]    [Dominant 7th]
C                                  F                 G             G7
|                                  |                 |
Am                                 Dm                Em

Here is how to play each chord. Here the notations are each no. indicates finger no. 1 is the index finger, 3 is the ring finger, etc. The 0 at the begining denotes play open string. and x means do not play the string, or mute it. Each horizontal line is a fret.






You see 2 notes are to be played by the index or 1st finger, this means you need to bar the first finger, ie fret the e and B strings with 1st finger.








Firefox 1.5 released

Firefox 1.5
The latest version of Firefox, ie Firefox 1.5 (DeerPark) has been released with a new home.

Here are some of the features in Firefox 1.5

  • Firefox 1.5 provides easier navigation for everyone, including those who are visually or motor-impaired. Firefox is now the first browser to support DHTML accessibility, which enables Web content to be read aloud – even new kinds of graphics-rich content. Users may navigate with keystrokes rather than mouse clicks, reducing the tabbing required to navigate documents such as spreadsheets. Firefox 1.5 is also the first browser to meet government requirements that software be easily accessible to users with physical impairments.
  • Clear Private Data, Protect your privacy with the new Clear Private Data tool. With a single click, you can delete all personal data, including browsing history, cookies, web form entries and passwords.
  • New support for Web Standards including SVG, CSS 2 and CSS 3, and JavaScript 1.6.
  • Improved pop-up blocking
  • Faster browser navigation with improvements to back and forward button performance.
  • Drag and drop reordering for browser tabs.

VirtualHosts little bit more…

You can make a domain run on a different port than 80, which is the default port of HTTP, in the previous examples of VirtualHost Configurations, I’ven’t specified the port, which implicitly is 80.

If you want to run the website on a different port, you need to make sure Apache is listning on that port. To do that, you set a directive Listen

Listen 8080

Alternatively you can also specify the IP on which it should listen.


Now if you want to run a Name-based VirtualHost on a specific, you make sure that you set the NameVirtualHost directive to a specific port as well.


Once you’ve set the NameVirtualHost, you need to set the actual VirtualHost configuration as well.
there is just once change to be made…


Important: You should note that all the domains,,,, should always resolve an IP address on which NameVirtualHost is defined. Without which, the configuration does not make any sense.

Setting VirtualHosts

The most important part of setting Apache is setting the hosts, or VirtualHosts. The term “VirtualHost” comes from the fact that one single host or comptuer is hosting many hostnames. Apache was the one to start of with this type of hosting, in this Apache picks up the Host header from a standard HTTP request to translate the website associated for that host. This type of hosting is known as the Name-based virtual hosting, which is the most common of all the hosting types. The other one is the IP-based hosting which requires each domain to have a separate IP.

What I will show you is how to set up a name based virtualhost.

Now, A simple GET request for my page root would be as

GET / HTTP/1.1

Now apache picks up “” from the request header and then translates it to the virtual host that is mapped to

Lets assume you have an IP, that you need to set up for virtual hosting, then first, you need to tell Apache that this IP is used for Namebased Virtual hosting.


Now that you have done with setting the IP for virtual hosting, you need to configure the VirtualHosts.

Let us take as the domain that needs to be set. So here it goes

  DocumentRoot /www/domains/
  CustomLog logs/ combined
  ErrorLog logs/
  DirectoryIndex index.php

Now let us review the configurations

  • ServerName: this is the main servername, it should be domain name
  • ServerAlias: this is an alias, eg should mean same as on HTTP
    You can set anything like as well. Just make sure that points to
  • DocumentRoot: This is the main directory that points to domain, this is the file system path to the directory
  • CustomLog: This is the access_log for, remember, we’d set the variable of “combined” log format, we are useing it here, if you want a different format, you can specify the LogFormat before specifying the CustomLog directive
  • ErrorLog: Any errors while serving are logged in this file
  • DirectoryIndex: Defines the default document page for root, eg when you do it tells the server to serve “index.php”, so you can set it whatever you want default-page.html,, etc.
  • ServerAdmin: Just specify the email address, this would show up, when there is any server error.

So now if you want to add a configuration for host “”…

  DocumentRoot /www/domains/
  CustomLog logs/ combined
  ErrorLog logs/
  DirectoryIndex index.php

The httpd.conf file

The httpd.conf file is the main configuration file of Apache. It rests in “apache-install-dir/conf”

Now lets take a look at some important and useful parameters

This is param sets the default server name, it should generally be the FQDN or the Fully Qualified Domain Name of the machine, or the IP, if the machine doesn’t have any FQDN.

This is a setting which encloses any of the settings for the given directory. So you specify the physical directory as the argument. So if you have a directory as /websites/mywebsite/somedir, you would do the following.

<Directory /websites/mywebsite/somedir>
... your settings

The AllowOverride allows the user, to override some of the settings by using their own file. This own file is the magical .htaccess file. By default it is set to None, which means the user can’t override the settings by specifying the .htaccess file in the directory. But you can change the AllowOverride None setting to AllowOverride All

This directive takes several options, I’ll explain some them,
Indexes: This allows a directory listing. U must have come accross something like this
Directory Listing

FollowSymLinks: This allows apache to follow symbolic links, symbolic links are nothing but links in *nix systems, eg. “files” in /etc/ can point to /files/myfiles/files
You can use both these options at once by

Options +Indexes -FollowSymLinks

The above setting will allow directory listing but won’t allow Symbolic links. So “+” to apply and “-” to remove the setting

I talked about the magic file .htaccess, This is the place where you specify the name of the file, By default it is “.htaccess”
The . “period” start is to make it a hidden file in *nix systems

Denying files
To deny files over the web, is the job of the server, in apache, we can do exactly by using the Files directive.

<Files ~ "^\.ht">
    Order allow,deny
    Deny from all
    Satisfy All

Note the ~ sign, this is used when you are giving a regular expression to match the files., Once the files are selected, they can be denied by using the Deny directive.
The above regex is to deny all the files that start with a “.ht”

Access Logs
To create access logs, we need to specify the format of the log, and the file path.
First we need to set the LogFormat directive
The most common is the “combined” log, which logs ip, user, time error code, referer and user agent

LogFormat “%h %l %u %t \”%r\” %>s %b \”%{Referer}i\” \”%{User-Agent}i\”” combined

Note: the log format has been given a name “combined”, feel free to create different formats for your needs and name it accordingly
Then we need to set the filename of the log,

CustomLog /usr/local/apache/logs/access_log common

The second parameter of the CustomLog directive which sets the filename of the log is the log format name, that we defined earlier.

When you want to look at the current status of the server, ie whom is it responding to, what pages is it serving, how many servers are running… and so on..
There is no better way than to set server-status
Check the screen shot of it.


To enable it …

<Location /server-status>
    SetHandler server-status
    Order deny,allow
    Deny from all
    Allow from

check the configuration, it is allowing only IP 84 to check the stats and others are forbidden. You can set your IP as you wish.
If you want even more info. you can set the Extended status

ExtendedStatus On

Apache beginings

For guys who have reached here, but still don’t know what httpd is,
Apache is a web server, For all the web pages, websites, blogs, image galleries that are hosted on the web, there needs to be server who “serves” these documents (pages, images, files) to the client (the user’s browser)

Apache got its name from … well… its nothing but a “A patchy server”, httpd apache is an open-source project, which was programmed by many programmers over the world. And everytime a bug-fix, a new feature was required, the main code was just “patched”. And hence it got its name Apache.

Apache being a standard web-browser, runs on port 80, this is the standard HTTP port. Before you begin ahead, let me warn you changing the settings of Apache can change the way a website behaves, and to edit its settings you need root access or Administrator access.

To control apache, you basically need to edit 2 important files “httpd.conf” and “.htaccess”