History Of Gwalior
Progress of mankind had reached town life prior to 6000 to 2500 B.C. which is proved through 7 places of Madhya Pradesh, these places are Ujjain, Mandasaur, Maheshwar, Navdatoli, Jabalpur, and Sagar etc.The effigies found link it with Hadappa culture. In Gwalior area also there is evidence of such culture of pre and post period of that era. This area was beginning of 600 B.C who had snatched it from Shishu-Nagas Pawaya village which is near Dabara was the Capital of that era. paraviekh (Script) found in Pawaya. reveals that at that time the ruler of this place was Swamin Shivnadi in 3rd Century this area was ruled by nagas. It can be said on the basis of coins that Nag rulers of Padmavati were BHIM, SAKAND VASU, GRAHSPATI VIBHU, BHAVNAM, DEV, VAYAGHRA AND GANPATI Of them the name of Ganpati figures in the script of pillar of Sumadargupta at Allahabad. Padmavati’s Nag Raja was Bhar Shiv who originally hailed from Bundelkhand. one fort of the script depicts that Miharkuls reign was upto Gwalior where Matrachet built one sun temple (Surya Mandir).
One stone carving reveals that amongst other famous rulers Pritihar Bhoj had occupied area around Gwalior fort from 836 to 882. Mahmood Ghaznavi launched first attack on Gwalior fort in 1021-1022 and after 4 days siege then Rajput ruler gifted 35 elephants to him and signed peace treaty in 1195-96 Mohd Gori attacked Lahang Dev of Gwalior and after treaty, he entrusted the job of annexing Gwalior to malik Bahaudin Tughlak who after one and a half years fearful fight conquered Gwalior fort. Later Kutbudin Abek. Commander-in-chief of Mohd, Gori appointed lltutamish as Ameer of this fort. From the year 1486 to 1526 Tomars ruled Gwalior Man Singh was the main ruler of this dynasty. He adorned the hilly fort with new buildings. He devised many irrigation channels. Of them Motijheel is prominent Vikramaditya was the last ruler of this dynasty who was killed in 1526 in the battle of Panipat.
Babar the Mugal when he became the ruler Delhi visited Gwalior on 26th September, 1528.He has beautifully described this place in his “BABARNAMA” Akbar seized Gwalior and till mid 1754 Gwalior and its fort was part of Mugal kingdom. As per Aine Akbari there was an iron mine in Gwalior and this town was a Taxal, from where copper coins were produced issued. This area came in the hands of Scindias and till India’s independence this was ruled by Scindia dynasty, Jiwaji Rao Scindia was the last ruler.
Coin Age Of Gwalior
According to Dr.H.B.Maheshwari the evidences pertaining to the prevalence of coins as a from of currency in the civilized society of Gwalior region are discernible in coin minting by ruler of the Naga dynasty The surrounding areas of the prosperous cities like Kutwar (Kuntalpur) Pawaya(Padmawati) and Narwar. located in this region coins minted by the rulers of the Naga dynasty during 1st -2nd century A.D are obtained in abundance.
We came to know for the first time of the emergence of the city of Gwalior, in the records of 7th 8th century But the evidences regarding the establishment of a mint at Gwalior Fort are deduced From the Gwalior Mint, casting Pupees in Silver and Paisa in copper On these coins the Name of the mint was distinctly inscribed as “GWALIOR” Islam Shah Suri not only kept on casting-coins in the Gwalior mint but also glorified this city as the capital of India by making it the capital of his empire.
Gwalior mint attained the level of national importance when the Mugal Emperors. Akbar Jahangeer and Shahjahan Managed the coinage of gild Mohars along with the minting of Silver and copper coins among the last Mugal rulers. Aurangzeb, Mohammed Shah and Shah Alam kept on minting gold and silver coins in this mint till 1761.
After the second battle of Panipat Mahadji Shinde Symbolizing a new epoch with the advent of Marathas. continued to mint gold, silver and copper Coins, which bore his dispicious symbol i.e. the sword and the flower as mint mark of Gwalior. Daulat Rao, the next Ruler of the Shinde Dynasty, shifting his capital from Ujjain to Gwalior founded a new city which in course of time.Came to be known as Lashkar. He with a view to meet the requriements of his vast empire. Set up another mint at’Danaoli’ in the new city of Gwalior.
During the reign of Daulat Rao and that of the rulers posterior to him – Rani Baija Bai, Janko Rao and jiyaji Rao coins would be minted in more than 10 mints for use in Gwalior state it is important to note here that gold coins would be minted only in the mint of the Gwalior Fourt the other mints i.e those of Ujjain, narwar Sheopur, Shadausa, Bairagarh, ishagarh Chanderi and videsha, as the evidences show, were employed only for the minting of coins of silver and copper: Where as at Jawad and Rajoud, evidences concerning the coinage only of copper coins have been obtained so for.
After 1925 Gwalior state started to mint coins worth a pie, Half paisa and Two paisa respectively. in order to fulfil further requirements, coins authorised issued by British India would be used. Coins of Gwalior state were wNdly in use with in its territories till 1950.
Sufi Sant Mohd.ghos
Hazart MOhd.Ghos is at the highest peak amongst Sufis in connection with Salaris of Middle era of India. In his time he was being addressed as Ghos Mohd Ghos is author of many books of which.” GULZARE ABRAR” is very famous.This great Darvesh was bom on 6th Rajab Friday 907 hijri at Ghazipur. U.P As per intzan Ullah Sahab he is said to have born in 890 Hijri.
“Mankbe Ghosia” much talked about Granth of 16th Century written by Fazal Ali Satari has ascribed that the full Name Of Ghos Sahib was Hamid-ud-din Mohd.Ghos. Writer Fazal Ali, a contemporary of akbar in his book ” KULYATE GWALIOR ” WHICH is recognised as an old historic book on Gwalior, has written that except Gousal Box who was the last Ghos there had been no Ghos. came into being after him.it is crystal clear that Ghos is not the name but a tile, Bahrul Hayat. jawahar-e-Khamsa. Kabide Makhajan, Kanjul Vahida, etc.
As per Dr.Harihar Nivas Dwivedi Mohad Ghos visited Gwalior in 1523. After 4 years of his arrival. Afghan sardar Rahim Dad Sahib became the ruler of Gwalior. Being influenced by Ghos Sshib Mughal emperor Babar paid tributes of HAZRI & AKIDAT in honour of Ghos Sahib. This histroic fact has been established by almost all the historians.Mohad ghos was blessed with 3 sons and 2 daughters. His eidest son was sheikh Abdulah whose tomp is situated near his own tomp of meerHadi sharif are situated in the tomp of Ghos sahib, bibi Zahida and Bibi Malha were his daughters.
As per Barbare Akber, when Army general of Babar reached Gwalior with his forces, then Subedar of Gwalior tatar khan. refused to surrender Gwalior fort to him But Daulat Rao the next ruler of the shinde dynasty shifting his capital from Uijain to Gwalior, founded a new city which in course of time, came to be known as lashkar.He with a view to meet the requrementts of his vast empire. set up another mint at’danaoli’ in the new city of Gwalior.
Ghos Sahib, who used to offer prayer in Gwalior Fourt without any blood-shed or battle could persuade to hand over Gwalior fort to soidiers of Baber himself in his “BABARNAMA” has mentioned this occurrence in detail. This is said to be 933 Hijri 28th November.
Amongst Sattari sufi saints Ghos Sahib was such a saint whom emperors bowed their heads Humayun and Akbar be came his discipales. Famous poet Khadak Rai who was Bhat of Tomars has mentioned in his writngs that Akbar was very much devoted to Ghos Sahib and was so much influenced by Ghos sahib that on his advice Baber handed over reigns of India to Humayun. This fact can be read in book MADHUMALTI written by Mata Prased Gupta.
Afghan king sher-shan was annoyed with Ghos Sahib because of his blessings to Babur and Humanun and for this reason he had once sent an army to Gwalior to kill GHos Sahib. Once Ghos Sahib was compelled to kill 12000 soldiers of sher-shah Ghos sahib was pained at this incident Humayun had written a letter of apology to Ghos sahib for being harassed by sher-shah. This narrated at page 292 of “GULZAR-BABAR” Mohd Ghos was KAMIL of Mangal Stare, this pride could not be achieved by any other saint. Many historians have described- Akbar as disciple of Mohd Ghos Akbar, when he was not throned as Emperor, had come to Gwalior to meet Ghos Sahib in 966 Hijri After becoming emperor, he participated in MAHFILS of Ghos sahib and received his blessings The beautiful tomb of ghos sahib is an example of worid fame archaeological monument which was constructed in 38 years. This was constructed during the reign of Akbar by eldest son of Ghos Sahib under the supervision of Emperor of Emperor at the Government expense.
Ganga Das Ki Shala
Ganaga Das Ki Shala is one of the various construction in Gwalior Know For National Unity Sant Rameshwar Dayal Das of utila is Mahant of this place. As per his version when Emperor Akbar passed From GWALIOR in 16th Century. He met Gusai Shri Parmanand Swami.Akbar himself Came here and got Constructed a temple in 21.5 Bighas of land and 12 villages were attached to it as Jagir On this occasion.Emperror Akbar presented turban and sword to Mahant Ji as token of respeect.
In 1824 Mahant Ganga Das JI Was born in 9th generation of parmanand Ji in whose name is this temple and Shala On 18th June.1858 Rani Laxmi Bai who was seriously injured while fighting against Britishers and was surrounded by them.had requested that she should be given refuge as she would succumb to fatal injuries All this has historic background. Maharaj Gangadas promised to protect her.She requested that her dead body should not be handed over to Britishers.Maharaj gave her sacred Ganaga jal and after consuming that she succumbed to her injuries.450 Sadhus used to live there at that time Maharaj Ganaga das performed her last rites with the help of Sadhus. Thakur Raghunath Singh Kaptan.Krishan Ji Rao Bua, and one Pathan opted to live by the SANADHI of LAXMI BAI till their last.
British soldiers besieged Ganaga Das Ki Shala and in the battle 345 sadhus laid down their lives. While fighting with britishers Maharaj slipped towards banks of the Ganges. MAharah Jivaji Rao himself went to Maharaj Ganga Das Who expressed his annoyance to Scindia But after a span Maharaj Ganga Das Came back.
Hazarat Meer Badshah
Dargah of Hazrat Meer Badshah is situated at Maharaj bada in front of Municipal corporation main office in the heart of Gwalior city. He came to Gwalior 150 years ago. He treated people of all religions and castes alike. His Urs is celebrated/every year with great pomp & Show cherished desires of visitors to his Durgah seem to have been fulfilled. He was an elderly man of his time of Gwalior town.
Hazrat Mansoor Shah
Hazrat Mansoor Shah Sahib was the religious Guru of scindia dynasty. He belonged to Beed Z(Dist Aurangabad). Maratha Saedar Nagadji scindia was badly wounded in battle with Ahmed shah Abdali at panipat and after his defeat he was not traceable. scindia’s wife who was native of Beed met Hazrat Mansoor Shah Sufi the Great sant of that time and prayed for the search of her missing husband. He Could be traced by the blessings of Mansoor shah sahib.
After this Scindia used to keep visiting Mansoor Shah sahib and by his blessings Marathas Under leadership of scindia met success in northern India. Scindia invited Mansoor Shah Sahib to Gwalior but being 85 years old. he could not accept the invitation of Maharaja scindia.
But his son HABIB SHAH came to Gwalior who was bestowed with jagir by Scindia. Even today personnel effects Utensils, Choga, Khadao etc. have been perserved safely in Gorkhi near Bada urs of Man soor shah sahib is celebrated every year with great pomp and show by scindia royal family. At present MOHD.KHUSRO is the 8th pedigree of Mansoor Shah Sahib who is residing at campoo road of Gwalior city. RELIGIOUS GOODWILL OF GWALIOR
Late Maharaj Madhorao Scindia Ex-ruler of Gwalior State opted secular religious policy and respected all religions alike. On becoming ruler on 15-12-1894 and after attaining administrative powers, he started developing Gwalior. in that period many industries and business were started. Jivaji Cotton Mills was established in those days. MAJLIS-A_AAM and MAJLIS-A-KANOON were established where in democratic benefits could be availed by people at large. Scindia kept on touring India and abroad and kept on attempting for the development and benefit of Gwalior state. During his regime for the first time electricity came into being in 1905 for which he spent Rs. 3 lac at that time. With the advent of electricity this area begin to change in miraculous way.
In 19th century people of this area were infused with spirit of citizenship. In 1907-08 circles were created which included certain Mohallas where in a representative was elected who in turn recommended facilities in the public interest. By this there was sufficient increase in the public facilities. In Gwalior the feeling of relegious unity is quite old. In 16th century Raja Man Singh of Tomar dynasty proved his ideals by marrying Gujri Rani “Mrignayni” who belonged to a backward caste. Ex-ruler of Gwalior decided to nominate 7 Muslims to Praja Sabha and 2 to Rajya Sabha. 30% of Government jobs were given to them. In the regime of Maharaja Jiwaji Rao Scindia Muslims were given high posts; Commander-in-chief and important ministers were muslims. Efforts were made to maintain Hindu-Muslim unity in these days. Famous Bal Krishna Sharma “NAVIN” said in 1939-40 that British Government was bent upon spreading religious riots by initiating poisonous versions.
We both Hindu and Muslims have alike suffering. Our enemy is common i.e. British Govt. and their anti-religious policy. In Gwalior State Sultan of After married a Hindu lady and thus presented example of Hindu muslim unity. In Gwalior Division, Pitambara Peeth in Datia city is an important Hindu religious place. Ex- ruler of Datia tried to carve a Muslim world fame wrestler Gama Pahalwan who is cited today with great pride. Historic Gwalior fort is a living example which signifies people of various religious faiths. There exist old Jain temple, historic Teli ka Mandir and many a tombs and graveyards of well known Muslim Sants and Fakirs. There exists a beautiful Gurudwara of northern India. There are 57 feet high idol of God Adinath and hundred beautiful idols after carving the walls of the fort. There are 3 main tombs of great Sufi Sants Hazrat Mohd.Ghos Sahib, Khwaja Kanoon Sahib and Baba Kapur Sahib in Gwalior city which are respected by citizens of all sects and religions. The tomb of great Sufi Sant Hazrat Mohd. Ghos Sahib of 16th Century is not only known for the needy, but at the same time is being visited by people as tourist spot.
Late Maharaja Madhorao Scindia in 1920 had got constructed Moti Masjid Gopal Mandir, Gurudwara. Theosophical lodge and church in phool Bagh Campus and thus he provided same status and respect to all religions. since times of scindia all celebrate together utsav of Ganesh, Tajyai of Moharam, Holi ID and diwali for the last 5 centuries Hindu-muslim Unity was founded. Spirt of brother-hood was fortified during past 75 years. by the efforts of late scindia this area is known as centre of Shanti-Sadbhavna (peace and good will) in the whole of the country where every citizen is first a human being then he is hindu, Muslim, sikh or a christian.